18th Century

Town Landscape

Buckland is a rare American example of the familiar axial English village pattern.  The Main Street of the Town extends from the main house entrance gate.  Both Buckland Hall and the Town of Buckland stand on the “Broad Run Tract” originally owned by the sixth Lord Fairfax, who conveyed this land to his agent, Robert (King) Carter.  Carter conveyed the land to his sons and son-in-law, who in turn sold the land to Samuel Love in 1774.  Love began construction of the main house, a single pile stone residence commonly attributed to architect William Buckland, though this affiliation is not documented.

1759 County Line Map - Betram Ewell

1759 County Line Map - Betram Ewell

Samuel Love’s sons, Samuel, John, Charles, and Augustine, served as Virginia Regiment Officers during the Revolutionary War and returned to transform Buckland into a vibrant mercantile center.  Beside the existing mill, and at the base of the lane leading to the main house, they built an assortment of secondary structures for production of farm goods.  Soon, the distillery, stone quarry, blacksmith, tannery, stores, and a second mill called “Kingsley” built in 1794 by John and Charles, were operating and were frequented by travelers.  Outside merchants arrived, leased adjoining parcels and built stores of their own.  When Samuel Love the elder died in 1787, John Love inherited the main house.  By the end of the eighteenth century there were additional shopkeepers, a wheelwright, cooper, apothecary, boot/shoe manufacturer, saddler, woolen factory, two taverns, and a church – the essentials of a small town.

 

1774 Carter Conveyance to Love

1774 Carter Conveyance to Love

In 1797 by petition to the Virginia General Assembly, John Love laid out a grid of lots around the irregular cluster of earlier shops and outbuildings described in this document as “already built upwards of twenty good houses occupied by tradesmen and merchants; considerable manufactories of grain have been erected,” including a stone distillery on Lot Number 29.  The petition further recommended “Buckland as a proper place for establishing a town and possessing singular advantages over any other situation within a considerable.”  The petition also carefully enumerates all of the natural amenities afforded at this location.   The General Assembly established the “forty-eight Lott Plan of the Town of Buckland” on 15 January 1798.

 

Origins of the American Thoroughbred

Pleasant Colony, 1981 Kentucky Derby Winner

Pleasant Colony, 1981 Kentucky Derby Winner

Buckland was also known for its horses.  Beginning in the 1780’s, John and Samuel Love Jr. (who had moved to “Salisbury” inLoudon County) began to import fine Arabian and European horses to breed.  The blood-lines of their stallions “Mahomet” and “Spread Eagle” are listed among the origins of the modern thoroughbred.  Love’s operation became one of the first large-scale breeding farms in Virginia along with “Salisbury” and “Bowling Green.”  In 1789, George Washington bought one of these horses “for his own use.”  He corresponded with and introduced the Loves to James McHenry, Secretary of War under President John Adams.  The Loves furnished McHenry with “a number of horses for the United States Army” in 1799.